Disability and Human Rights
The World Report on Disability developed in 2011 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank stipulates that disability affects 15% of the world population. Several international and regional studies state that the majority of the population continues to live in unfavorable conditions for fundamental rights. Thus, the global report confirms that people with disabilities in low-income countries "have a higher risk of 50% compared to those without disabilities"
Handicap situations are characterized by uncertainty and the multiple barriers faced by those affected and their families. These barriers are political, legislative, financial; again the lack of reliable data and inadequate services exacerbate discrimination against persons with disabilities .
According to the report prepared by UNICEF in 2013 on the situation of children with disabilities in the world, "about 93 million children live with a type of moderate or severe disability"
To grant rights for persons with disabilities is a major challenge. This is a telling measure of the ability of societies to take into account the diversity of all constituent groups. Around the world, people with disabilities have a long history of discrimination, exclusion and invisibility. This discrimination is the result of cultural perceptions and social organization based on individual model of disability which does not recognize diversity as a condition inherent to humanity.
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) played a prominent role in promoting the human rights of persons with disabilities. However, despite the willingness of countries to ratify the Convention, its implementation often experiences delays. Unlike the northern countries where the need for the protection of human rights is rooted, developing countries often face priorities that do not include the disability dimension.
This instrument of Human Rights enshrines the full participation of persons with disabilities and enjoyment of all human rights, making citizenship an unwavering corollary. The Convention also enshrines the devices able to make effective the rights of persons with disabilities in their diversity. Management of public affairs becomes a law under which people with disabilities should not be excluded, either as voters or as elected officials.
In this respect, international human rights, including the Convention, are important for people with disabilities including their political participation in the life of the community, which must be significantly strengthened.
The implementation of public policies to guarantee the rights of persons with disabilities, requires tools of systematic data collection, able to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the experience and the cost of disability.
The role of monitoring public policies and budgets up to organizations of persons with disabilities and their families. It can only be achieved by the establishment of instances where the involvement of these is imperative. Currently, the number of countries with these instruments is limited. The question emerges of duality with national institutions for human rights, hence the need to develop an integrated common vision and develop guidelines for efficient monitoring.
Recognizing the lack of implementation of the international law of human rights and persistent multiple barriers, the international community has stepped up efforts to explain and promote the provisions of the CRPD. The past two years, it has devoted its discussion around the MDGs post-2015. The review of related indicators revealed that "mainstreaming" of disability in development is a priority, because of the correlation between disability and poverty.
The ongoing negotiations on the future objectives of the MDGs in this regard are an important issue, which should mobilize governments, the UN system and disability organizations in order to ensure better protection of the rights of persons with disabilities.
Despite the efforts made ??to preserve the rights of women and the adoption of legislation in many countries, the issue of disabled women remains obscured, as confirmed by the General Comment No. 18 of the CEDAW Committee . The fight for women with disabilities to make their case needs to be strengthened in many countries. From this point of view, the role of different stakeholders is essential.
Whatever the nature of the disability (physical, visual, hearing or mental), accessibility must be guaranteed to persons with disabilities and concerns different areas: education, higher education and professional employment, work adapted and sheltered employment, built environment, transport , new technologies, ... universal adaptation should be appropriate; or the means for its effectiveness are far from meeting the needs of disabled people and to ensure their independence.
The MFHR stands six years after the entry into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Gathering NHRI governments, UN mechanisms, organizations of disabled people and their families and civil society, this forum is a real opportunity for an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach to the rights of persons with disabilities in all scheduled activities. It is also an opportunity to bring together all stakeholders to enforce those rights.
While calling for a of mainstreaming of disability issues, we intend to devote a thematic forum on disability rights, and thus promote the inclusion of people with disabilities.
The theme forum aims to address the following issues:
. International mechanisms;
. Public policy and disability; What safeguards and access to rights?
· Society and perceptions of disability;
· Disability and universal design: buildings, services, transportation and communication;
· Disability and rights to training, education;
· Civil society and disability;
· Disability and Political Rights
· Disability and right to work and businesses;
. Data collection.